标签 SSH 下的文章

目录操作:rm -rf mydir /*删除mydir目录*/
cd mydir /*进入mydir目录*/
cd - /*回上一级目录*/
cd .. /*回父目录,中间有空格*/
cd ~ /*回根目录*/
mv tools tool /*把tools目录改名为tool */
ln -s tool bac /*给tool目录创建名为bac的符号链接,最熟悉的应该就是FTP中www链接到public_html目录了*/
cp -a tool /home/vpser/www /*把tool目录下所有文件复制到www目录下 */

文件操作:
rm go.tar        /* 删除go.tar文件 */
find mt.cgi    /* 查找文件名为mt.cgi的文件 */
df –h              /* 查看磁盘剩余空间,好像没这个必要,除非你太那个了 */

解压缩:
tar xvf wordpress.tar       /* 解压tar格式的文件 */
tar -tvf myfile.tar     /* 查看tar文件中包含的文件 */

tar cf toole.tar tool /* 把tool目录打包为toole.tar文件 */
tar cfz vpser.tar.gz tool /* 把tool目录打包且压缩为vpser.tar.gz文件,因为.tar文件几乎是没有压缩过的,MT的.tar.gz文件解压成.tar文件后差不多是10MB */

tar jcvf  /var/bak/www.tar.bz2 /var/www/    /*创建.tar.bz2文件,压缩率高*/
tar xjf www.tar.bz2 /*解压tar.bz2格式*/

gzip -d ge.tar.gz        /* 解压.tar.gz文件为.tar文件 */
unzip phpbb.zip      /* 解压zip文件,windows下要压缩出一个.tar.gz格式的文件还是有点麻烦的 */

下载:
wget http://soft.vpser.net/web/nginx/nginx-0.8.0.tar.gz
/*下载远程服务器上的文件到自己的服务器,连上传都省了,服务器不是100M就是1000M的带宽,下载一个2-3兆的MT还不是几十秒的事 */
wget -c http://soft.vpser.net/web/nginx/nginx-0.8.0.tar.gz
/* 继续下载上次未下载完的文件 */

进程管理:
ps -aux   /*ps 进程状态查询命令*/

ps命令输出字段的含义:
[list]
[*]USER,进程所有者的用户名。
[*]PID,进程号,可以唯一标识该进程。
[*]%CPU,进程自最近一次刷新以来所占用的CPU时间和总时间的百分比。
[*]%MEM,进程使用内存的百分比。
[*]VSZ,进程使用的虚拟内存大小,以K为单位。
[*]RSS,进程占用的物理内存的总数量,以K为单位。
[*]TTY,进程相关的终端名。
[*]STAT,进程状态,用(R--运行或准备运行;S--睡眠状态;I--空闲;Z--冻结;D--不间断睡眠;W-进程没有驻留页;T停止或跟踪。)这些字母来表示。
[*]START,进程开始运行时间。
[*]TIME,进程使用的总CPU时间。
[*]COMMAND,被执行的命令行。
[/list]

ps -aux | grep nginx  /*在所有进程中,查找nginx的进程*/
kill 1234    /*1234为进程ID,即ps -aux 中的PID*/
killall nginx /*killall 通过程序的名字,直接杀死所有进程,nginx为进程名*/

Vim操作:

移动类的:
h/j/k/l: 左/下/上/右 移一格
w : 向后词移动 (前面加数字移动多少个词)
b : 向前词移动 (前面加数字移动多少个词)
e : 向后移到词末
ge : 向前移到词末
$ <End> : 行末
0 <Home> : 行首
tx : 向右查找本行的x并移到那儿(大写时向左)
33G : 移到文件的第33行
gg : 文件首行
G : 文件尾行
33% : 文件的33%处
H/M/L : 屏幕的首/中/尾行
zt/zz/zb : 当前行移到屏幕的首/中/底部

跳转:
"  : 回到跳转来的地方
CTRL-O : 跳到一个 “较老” 的地方
CTRL-I <Tab> : 则跳到一个 “较新” 的地方

查找:
/ : 向下查找(后加关键字)
? : 向上查找(后加关键字)
n : 下一条符合的记录

编辑:
i : 转换到插入模式
x : 删除当前字符
. : 重复最后一次的修改操作(同PS里ctrl+f执行滤镜)
u : 撤销操作
CTRL-R : 重做
p : 将删除的字符插入到当前位置(put)

退出保存:
:q : 退出
:q! : 不保存退出
ZZ : 保存后退出
:e! : 放弃修改重新编辑

掌握这些基本命令,Linux下的基本使用已经掌握,只要多加练习,多遇到问题,解决问题,能力就会不断的提升。

LINUX VPS和WIN的一样,总是会被无聊的人在扫IP扫ROOT密码和FTP密码,只要花点时间,实际上都能被暴力破解到密码,所以装下面这个防火墙,可以在对方错误次数超过几次就屏蔽他的IP(注意自己不要没事错误很多次,要不然自己也挂了),从而达到增强服务器安全系数的目的。
第一步:
wget http://imcat.in/down/DenyHosts-2.6.tar.gz
这是下载文件
第二步:
tar -zxvf DenyHosts-2.6.tar.gz
这是解压缩
cd DenyHosts-2.6
进入那个解压的目录
python setup.py install
这是安装
安装完了用WINSCP登陆,先返回到根目录(登陆默认不是根目录)
然后进入/usr/share/denyhosts目录找到denyhosts.cfg
下载到本机,用记事本打开,将附件中的配置文件内容复制粘贴进去替换原来内容,然后保存,然后上传覆盖原来的文件。
好了之后重启下防火墙软件
service denyhosts start
OK 防火墙就装成功了
我们以后可以在/etc/这个目录中的hosts.deny这个文件用记事本打开就可以看到有哪些IP曾经攻击过服务器。

配置文件:
############ THESE SETTINGS ARE REQUIRED #################################################################################### # # SECURE_LOG: the log file that contains sshd logging info # if you are not sure, grep "sshd:" /var/log/* # # The file to process can be overridden with the --file command line # argument # # Redhat or Fedora Core: #日志文件,根据这个文件来判断 SECURE_LOG = /var/log/secure # # Mandrake, FreeBSD or OpenBSD: #SECURE_LOG = /var/log/auth.log # # SuSE: #SECURE_LOG = /var/log/messages # # Mac OS X (v10.4 or greater - # also refer to: [url]http://www.denyhosts.net/faq.html#macos[/url] #SECURE_LOG = /private/var/log/asl.log # # Mac OS X (v10.3 or earlier): #SECURE_LOG=/private/var/log/system.log # ######################################################################## ######################################################################## # # HOSTS_DENY: the file which contains restricted host access information # # Most operating systems: #记录屏蔽的IP文件 HOSTS_DENY = /etc/hosts.deny # # Some BSD (FreeBSD) Unixes: #HOSTS_DENY = /etc/hosts.allow # # Another possibility (also see the next option): #HOSTS_DENY = /etc/hosts.evil ####################################################################### ######################################################################## # # PURGE_DENY: removed HOSTS_DENY entries that are older than this time # when DenyHosts is invoked with the --purge flag # # format is: i[dhwmy] # Where 'i' is an integer (eg. 7) # 'm' = minutes # 'h' = hours # 'd' = days # 'w' = weeks # 'y' = years # # never purge: #多久清除屏蔽的IP,我设置一天 PURGE_DENY = 1d # # purge entries older than 1 week #PURGE_DENY = 1w # # purge entries older than 5 days #PURGE_DENY = 5d ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # PURGE_THRESHOLD: defines the maximum times a host will be purged. # Once this value has been exceeded then this host will not be purged. # Setting this parameter to 0 (the default) disables this feature. # # default: a denied host can be purged/re-added indefinitely #PURGE_THRESHOLD = 0 # # a denied host will be purged at most 2 times. #PURGE_THRESHOLD = 2 # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # BLOCK_SERVICE: the service name that should be blocked in HOSTS_DENY # # man 5 hosts_access for details # # eg. sshd: 127.0.0.1 # will block sshd logins from 127.0.0.1 # # To block all services for the offending host: #BLOCK_SERVICE = ALL # To block only sshd: #禁止的服务,我设置为全部,禁止登录SSH和/FTP BLOCK_SERVICE = ALL # To only record the offending host and nothing else (if using # an auxilary file to list the hosts). Refer to: # [url]http://denyhosts.sourceforge.net/faq.html#aux[/url] #BLOCK_SERVICE = # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # DENY_THRESHOLD_INVALID: block each host after the number of failed login # attempts has exceeded this value. This value applies to invalid # user login attempts (eg. non-existent user accounts) # #允许无效用户失败的数次 DENY_THRESHOLD_INVALID = 1 # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # DENY_THRESHOLD_VALID: block each host after the number of failed # login attempts has exceeded this value. This value applies to valid # user login attempts (eg. user accounts that exist in /etc/passwd) except # for the "root" user #允许普通用户失败的次数 DENY_THRESHOLD_VALID = 1 # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # DENY_THRESHOLD_ROOT: block each host after the number of failed # login attempts has exceeded this value. This value applies to # "root" user login attempts only. #允许root用户失败的次数 DENY_THRESHOLD_ROOT = 3 # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # DENY_THRESHOLD_RESTRICTED: block each host after the number of failed # login attempts has exceeded this value. This value applies to # usernames that appear in the WORK_DIR/restricted-usernames file only. # DENY_THRESHOLD_RESTRICTED = 1 # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # WORK_DIR: the path that DenyHosts will use for writing data to # (it will be created if it does not already exist). # # Note: it is recommended that you use an absolute pathname # for this value (eg. /home/foo/denyhosts/data) # WORK_DIR = /usr/share/denyhosts/data # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # SUSPICIOUS_LOGIN_REPORT_ALLOWED_HOSTS # # SUSPICIOUS_LOGIN_REPORT_ALLOWED_HOSTS=YES|NO # If set to YES, if a suspicious login attempt results from an allowed-host # then it is considered suspicious. If this is NO, then suspicious logins # from allowed-hosts will not be reported. All suspicious logins from # ip addresses that are not in allowed-hosts will always be reported. # SUSPICIOUS_LOGIN_REPORT_ALLOWED_HOSTS=YES ###################################################################### ###################################################################### # # HOSTNAME_LOOKUP # # HOSTNAME_LOOKUP=YES|NO # If set to YES, for each IP address that is reported by Denyhosts, # the corresponding hostname will be looked up and reported as well # (if available). #是否做域名反解析 HOSTNAME_LOOKUP=NO # ###################################################################### ###################################################################### # # LOCK_FILE # # LOCK_FILE=/path/denyhosts # If this file exists when DenyHosts is run, then DenyHosts will exit # immediately. Otherwise, this file will be created upon invocation # and deleted upon exit. This ensures that only one instance is # running at a time. # # Redhat/Fedora: LOCK_FILE = /var/lock/subsys/denyhosts # # Debian #LOCK_FILE = /var/run/denyhosts.pid # # Misc #LOCK_FILE = /tmp/denyhosts.lock # ###################################################################### ############ THESE SETTINGS ARE OPTIONAL ############ ####################################################################### # # ADMIN_EMAIL: if you would like to receive emails regarding newly # restricted hosts and suspicious logins, set this address to # match your email address. If you do not want to receive these reports # leave this field blank (or run with the --noemail option) # # Multiple email addresses can be delimited by a comma, eg: # ADMIN_EMAIL = [email]foo@bar.com[/email], [email]bar@foo.com[/email], [email]etc@foobar.com[/email] #管理员Email ADMIN_EMAIL = # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # SMTP_HOST and SMTP_PORT: if DenyHosts is configured to email # reports (see ADMIN_EMAIL) then these settings specify the # email server address (SMTP_HOST) and the server port (SMTP_PORT) # # SMTP_HOST = localhost SMTP_PORT = 25 # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # SMTP_USERNAME and SMTP_PASSWORD: set these parameters if your # smtp email server requires authentication # #SMTP_USERNAME=foo #SMTP_PASSWORD=bar # ###################################################################### ####################################################################### # # SMTP_FROM: you can specify the "From:" address in messages sent # from DenyHosts when it reports thwarted abuse attempts # SMTP_FROM = DenyHosts <nobody@localhost> # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # SMTP_SUBJECT: you can specify the "Subject:" of messages sent # by DenyHosts when it reports thwarted abuse attempts SMTP_SUBJECT = DenyHosts Report # ###################################################################### ###################################################################### # # SMTP_DATE_FORMAT: specifies the format used for the "Date:" header # when sending email messages. # # for possible values for this parameter refer to: man strftime # # the default: # #SMTP_DATE_FORMAT = %a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S %z # ###################################################################### ###################################################################### # # SYSLOG_REPORT # # SYSLOG_REPORT=YES|NO # If set to yes, when denied hosts are recorded the report data # will be sent to syslog (syslog must be present on your system). # The default is: NO # #SYSLOG_REPORT=NO # #SYSLOG_REPORT=YES # ###################################################################### ###################################################################### # # ALLOWED_HOSTS_HOSTNAME_LOOKUP # # ALLOWED_HOSTS_HOSTNAME_LOOKUP=YES|NO # If set to YES, for each entry in the WORK_DIR/allowed-hosts file, # the hostname will be looked up. If your versions of tcp_wrappers # and sshd sometimes log hostnames in addition to ip addresses # then you may wish to specify this option. # #ALLOWED_HOSTS_HOSTNAME_LOOKUP=NO # ###################################################################### ###################################################################### # # AGE_RESET_VALID: Specifies the period of time between failed login # attempts that, when exceeded will result in the failed count for # this host to be reset to 0. This value applies to login attempts # to all valid users (those within /etc/passwd) with the # exception of root. If not defined, this count will never # be reset. # # See the comments in the PURGE_DENY section (above) # for details on specifying this value or for complete details # refer to: [url]http://denyhosts.sourceforge.net/faq.html#timespec[/url] # AGE_RESET_VALID=5d # ###################################################################### ###################################################################### # # AGE_RESET_ROOT: Specifies the period of time between failed login # attempts that, when exceeded will result in the failed count for # this host to be reset to 0. This value applies to all login # attempts to the "root" user account. If not defined, # this count will never be reset. # # See the comments in the PURGE_DENY section (above) # for details on specifying this value or for complete details # refer to: [url]http://denyhosts.sourceforge.net/faq.html#timespec[/url] # AGE_RESET_ROOT=25d # ###################################################################### ###################################################################### # # AGE_RESET_RESTRICTED: Specifies the period of time between failed login # attempts that, when exceeded will result in the failed count for # this host to be reset to 0. This value applies to all login # attempts to entries found in the WORK_DIR/restricted-usernames file. # If not defined, the count will never be reset. # # See the comments in the PURGE_DENY section (above) # for details on specifying this value or for complete details # refer to: [url]http://denyhosts.sourceforge.net/faq.html#timespec[/url] # AGE_RESET_RESTRICTED=25d # ###################################################################### ###################################################################### # # AGE_RESET_INVALID: Specifies the period of time between failed login # attempts that, when exceeded will result in the failed count for # this host to be reset to 0. This value applies to login attempts # made to any invalid username (those that do not appear # in /etc/passwd). If not defined, count will never be reset. # # See the comments in the PURGE_DENY section (above) # for details on specifying this value or for complete details # refer to: [url]http://denyhosts.sourceforge.net/faq.html#timespec[/url] # AGE_RESET_INVALID=10d # ###################################################################### ###################################################################### # # RESET_ON_SUCCESS: If this parameter is set to "yes" then the # failed count for the respective ip address will be reset to 0 # if the login is successful. # # The default is RESET_ON_SUCCESS = no # #RESET_ON_SUCCESS = yes # ##################################################################### ###################################################################### # # PLUGIN_DENY: If set, this value should point to an executable # program that will be invoked when a host is added to the # HOSTS_DENY file. This executable will be passed the host # that will be added as it's only argument. # #PLUGIN_DENY=/usr/bin/true # ###################################################################### ###################################################################### # # PLUGIN_PURGE: If set, this value should point to an executable # program that will be invoked when a host is removed from the # HOSTS_DENY file. This executable will be passed the host # that is to be purged as it's only argument. # #PLUGIN_PURGE=/usr/bin/true # ###################################################################### ###################################################################### # # USERDEF_FAILED_ENTRY_REGEX: if set, this value should contain # a regular expression that can be used to identify additional # hackers for your particular ssh configuration. This functionality # extends the built-in regular expressions that DenyHosts uses. # This parameter can be specified multiple times. # See this faq entry for more details: # [url]http://denyhosts.sf.net/faq.html#userdef_regex[/url] # #USERDEF_FAILED_ENTRY_REGEX= # # ###################################################################### ######### THESE SETTINGS ARE SPECIFIC TO DAEMON MODE ########## ####################################################################### # # DAEMON_LOG: when DenyHosts is run in daemon mode (--daemon flag) # this is the logfile that DenyHosts uses to report it's status. # To disable logging, leave blank. (default is: /var/log/denyhosts) # DAEMON_LOG = /var/log/denyhosts # # disable logging: #DAEMON_LOG = # ###################################################################### ####################################################################### # # DAEMON_LOG_TIME_FORMAT: when DenyHosts is run in daemon mode # (--daemon flag) this specifies the timestamp format of # the DAEMON_LOG messages (default is the ISO8061 format: # ie. 2005-07-22 10:38:01,745) # # for possible values for this parameter refer to: man strftime # # Jan 1 13:05:59 #DAEMON_LOG_TIME_FORMAT = %b %d %H:%M:%S # # Jan 1 01:05:59 #DAEMON_LOG_TIME_FORMAT = %b %d %I:%M:%S # ###################################################################### ####################################################################### # # DAEMON_LOG_MESSAGE_FORMAT: when DenyHosts is run in daemon mode # (--daemon flag) this specifies the message format of each logged # entry. By default the following format is used: # # %(asctime)s - %(name)-12s: %(levelname)-8s %(message)s # # Where the "%(asctime)s" portion is expanded to the format # defined by DAEMON_LOG_TIME_FORMAT # # This string is passed to python's logging.Formatter contstuctor. # For details on the possible format types please refer to: # [url]http://docs.python.org/lib/node357.html[/url] # # This is the default: #DAEMON_LOG_MESSAGE_FORMAT = %(asctime)s - %(name)-12s: %(levelname)-8s %(message)s # # ###################################################################### ####################################################################### # # DAEMON_SLEEP: when DenyHosts is run in daemon mode (--daemon flag) # this is the amount of time DenyHosts will sleep between polling # the SECURE_LOG. See the comments in the PURGE_DENY section (above) # for details on specifying this value or for complete details # refer to: [url]http://denyhosts.sourceforge.net/faq.html#timespec[/url] # # DAEMON_SLEEP = 30s # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # DAEMON_PURGE: How often should DenyHosts, when run in daemon mode, # run the purge mechanism to expire old entries in HOSTS_DENY # This has no effect if PURGE_DENY is blank. # DAEMON_PURGE = 1h # ####################################################################### ######### THESE SETTINGS ARE SPECIFIC TO ########## ######### DAEMON SYNCHRONIZATION ########## ####################################################################### # # Synchronization mode allows the DenyHosts daemon the ability # to periodically send and receive denied host data such that # DenyHosts daemons worldwide can automatically inform one # another regarding banned hosts. This mode is disabled by # default, you must uncomment SYNC_SERVER to enable this mode. # # for more information, please refer to: # http:/denyhosts.sourceforge.net/faq.html#sync # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # SYNC_SERVER: The central server that communicates with DenyHost # daemons. Currently, denyhosts.net is the only available server # however, in the future, it may be possible for organizations to # install their own server for internal network synchronization # # To disable synchronization (the default), do nothing. # # To enable synchronization, you must uncomment the following line: #SYNC_SERVER = [url]http://xmlrpc.denyhosts.net:9911[/url] # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # SYNC_INTERVAL: the interval of time to perform synchronizations if # SYNC_SERVER has been uncommented. The default is 1 hour. # #SYNC_INTERVAL = 1h # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # SYNC_UPLOAD: allow your DenyHosts daemon to transmit hosts that have # been denied? This option only applies if SYNC_SERVER has # been uncommented. # The default is SYNC_UPLOAD = yes # #SYNC_UPLOAD = no #SYNC_UPLOAD = yes # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # SYNC_DOWNLOAD: allow your DenyHosts daemon to receive hosts that have # been denied by others? This option only applies if SYNC_SERVER has # been uncommented. # The default is SYNC_DOWNLOAD = yes # #SYNC_DOWNLOAD = no #SYNC_DOWNLOAD = yes # # # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # SYNC_DOWNLOAD_THRESHOLD: If SYNC_DOWNLOAD is enabled this parameter # filters the returned hosts to those that have been blocked this many # times by others. That is, if set to 1, then if a single DenyHosts # server has denied an ip address then you will receive the denied host. # # See also SYNC_DOWNLOAD_RESILIENCY # #SYNC_DOWNLOAD_THRESHOLD = 10 # # The default is SYNC_DOWNLOAD_THRESHOLD = 3 # #SYNC_DOWNLOAD_THRESHOLD = 3 # ####################################################################### ####################################################################### # # SYNC_DOWNLOAD_RESILIENCY: If SYNC_DOWNLOAD is enabled then the # value specified for this option limits the downloaded data # to this resiliency period or greater. # # Resiliency is defined as the timespan between a hackers first known # attack and it's most recent attack. Example: # # If the centralized denyhosts.net server records an attack at 2 PM # and then again at 5 PM, specifying a SYNC_DOWNLOAD_RESILIENCY = 4h # will not download this ip address. # # However, if the attacker is recorded again at 6:15 PM then the # ip address will be downloaded by your DenyHosts instance. # # This value is used in conjunction with the SYNC_DOWNLOAD_THRESHOLD # and only hosts that satisfy both values will be downloaded. # This value has no effect if SYNC_DOWNLOAD_THRESHOLD = 1 # # The default is SYNC_DOWNLOAD_RESILIENCY = 5h (5 hours) # # Only obtain hackers that have been at it for 2 days or more: #SYNC_DOWNLOAD_RESILIENCY = 2d # # Only obtain hackers that have been at it for 5 hours or more: #SYNC_DOWNLOAD_RESILIENCY = 5h # #######################################################################